UKCCSRC Supported Core Research Projects
A1: Materials development
Researcher: Dr Camille Petit
This work package is dedicated to identifying and producing CO2 capture materials that can compete with the current – though not satisfactory – benchmark in the field. The potential for scale up of these materials is to be explored using unique facilities available at UK universities.
A2a: Pilot testing #1
Researchers: Prof. Hao Liu, Prof. Colin Snape
To drive down the cost of CO2 capture, it is essential to develop more cost effective technologies than amine scrubbing, which has been adopted from the oil and gas industry. One such technology is solid adsorbents for CO2 capture. A pilot scale facility for testing
will address the key issues concerning scale up, including the thermal and mechanical stability, and moisture sensitivity of the new adsorbents under real process conditions.
A2b: Pilot testing #2
Researcher: Prof. Ben Anthony
This work package will investigate the use of CO2 capture and oxygen carrying materials within Cranfield University’s state-of-the-art pilot plant facilities. These materials will be manufactured at the kilogram scale in collaboration with our partners. We are aiming to study the structural properties of the particles and look at their particle breakage mechanisms when fluidised under realistic operating conditions.
AC1: Bio-energy carbon capture and storage
Researchers: Dr Karen Finney, Prof. Lin Ma, Prof. Mohamed Pourkashanian
Using the PACT facilities we have investigated a range of biomass fuels coupled with different CCS technologies, including post-combustion and oxy-fuel methods. This is vital for scaling up projects so they can be used on a larger, commercial scale and make a real world impact on emissions reductions. This work package investigates the impurities in the fuels that can detrimentally impact the capture process and will devise strategies to limit the adverse effects these can have.
AC2: Advanced, high-efficient cycles using gas turbines with S-CO2 or direct oxy-fired CCGT-CCS
Researchers: Prof. Phil Bowen, Prof. Lin Ma, Dr Richard Marsh, Prof. Mohamed Pourkashanian
Here, we investigate a novel system for CO2 capture from a gas turbine. The aim is to boost the concentration of CO2 in the exhaust of the system by partially recycling the gas. We will also investigate the potential for a radically new cycle involving oxygen firing (with recycled CO2 to keep the temperature down).
AC3: Detailed models
Researcher: Dr Stuart Scott
This project will construct detailed models of the applications of the new capture materials being developed in work packages A1 and A2. The models produced will be validated and used to feed back to the experimental work at Imperial College London, Cranfield University
and the University of Nottingham, but will be too complex for direct use in system level models. The process models will therefore feed into the development of the reduced order models in AC5.
AC4: Integration options for hydrogen and clean power synergies
Researchers: Dr Hannah Chalmers, Dr Mathieu Lucquiaud
Electricity and hydrogen are two key low carbon energy vectors to decarbonise energy used in the transport sector, space heating and industry. In the UK energy supply system of the future, both vectors may be generated in the same location: in low carbon CCS industrial clusters with a common infrastructure. We investigate the integration of the process of hydrogen production with electricity generation from the same fuel source, natural gas. The objective is to achieve cost reduction via the sharing of subcomponents of the CO2 capture process and via flexibility to cope with variations of both vectors in demand over time.
AC5: Reduced order models
Researchers: Dr Solomon Brown, Prof. Meihong Wang
Algorithms are being developed to simplify and speed up the computational models used in CCS research. This is done through creating metamodels, which once complete, will be used to analyse how various carbon capture technologies can impact the UK energy system as a whole. Policy makers could also use this as a tool to inform their strategic decisions about how CCS works at a system level
UKCCSRC Supported Core Research Storage Projects
B2: CO2 migration and storage
Researchers: Dr Andy Chadwick, Prof. Stuart Haszeldine, Dr Stuart Gilfillan, Dr Sam Krevor, Dr Jerome Neufeld, Dr Gareth Williams, John Williams
In planning to inject CO2 underground it is important to be able to predict where and how quickly CO2 will move, and where it will be trapped. These predictions are made difficult by a combination of the complexities of fluid dynamics and the unknown and heterogeneous
nature of the subsurface rocks in which CO2 will be stored. To improve our ability to design CO2 storage projects and estimate the capacity of a formation for CO2 storage, we are studying key problems at a range of size scales of importance to CO2 storage. This includes questions such as: How does rock heterogeneity impact the flow pathways of injected CO2? How quickly does CO2 dissolve into water in the subsurface? And, what can we measure about rocks in the laboratory that would enable us to answer these questions at the larger scales associated with underground CO2 plume movement?
B1: Pressure propogation and control
Researchers: Dr Andy Chadwick, Prof. Stuart Haszeldine, Dr Stuart Gilfillan, Dr Jerome Neufeld, Dr Gareth Williams, John Williams
Injecting CO2 into the subsurface will cause a temporary increase in the pressure of fluids trapped within the rocks. Understanding how this pressure wave travels through the rocks and the possible effects of increasing pressure in the subsurface are important to ensure the safe containment of the CO2. To improve our ability to predict the volume of CO2 which can be stored, we are modelling the propagation of pressure throughout the reservoir. By constructing reduced models to explain this surface ground deformation in current storage sites, we can increase our understanding of the distribution of pressure over time within storage reservoirs.
B4: Scoping/development of a proposed CO2 geolab
Researchers: Dr Andy Chadwick, Prof. Stuart Haszeldine, Dr Stuart Gilfillan, John Williams
This work package aims to examine the feasibility of developing a pilot scale CO2 injection test site in the UK. Many other countries have developed their own CO2 injection test facilities (e.g. Germany, Spain, United States, Australia, Canada etc.) and we believe that it would be beneficial for the UK to have its own as well. This would comprise a research facility to test typical UK storage reservoir rocks with experiments focussed on particular uncertainties in UK underground storage, and to develop a core of practical storage expertise in UK scientists. Ideally the research site would be situated in an area where CO2 is already available from industrial sources and where the potential for future larger scale offshore storage is present.
UKCCSRC Supported Core Research Systems and Policy Projects
CAB1: Cross cutting value of CCS
Researchers: Dr Paul Dodds, Dr Niall Mac Dowell, Prof. Nilay Shah, Prof. Goran Strbac
This work serves as an integrating effort across the three main themes of Capture, Storage, and Systems and Policy. We explore the social, technical, and economic barriers and advantages associated with the large scale deployment of CCS in the UK’s energy system and will provide insight as to how CCS can best be deployed to maximise value to the UK’s economy.
CA1: BECCS within the energy system
Researchers: Dr Niall Mac Dowell, Prof. Nilay Shah
In order to meet the Paris climate target, we need to remove significant amounts of CO2 from the atmosphere, with bioenergy plus CCS (BECCS) considered a promising option. However, sustainable biomass is a scarce resource, and must be used in the best manner possible. This work will study how biomass can optimally be used to both remove CO2 from the atmosphere and simultaneously provide renewable energy services.
CB1: Social license to operate
Researchers: Dr Clair Gough, Dr Sarah Mander
CCS has been identified as a key element of the UK’s options for reducing its CO2 emissions. However, progress in bringing the approach to commercial deployment has not matched its potential. This work package will work with key stakeholders (e.g. government, industry, NGOs, lay publics etc.) to better understand the key issues and identify priorities in establishing CCS within the UK energy system, and to help build the necessary foundations to establish a social license to operate CCS in the UK.