Seismic monitoring and modelling of supercritical CO2 injection into a water-saturated sandstone: Interpretation of P-wave velocity data

This paper reports on an integrated laboratory and numerical simulation study of ultrasonic P-wave velocity response to supercritical CO2 displacement of pore water in Tako sandstone. The analysis of dynamic velocity data recorded using an array of piezoelectric transducers mounted on a core sample showed that the P-wave velocities at different positions displayed a similar trend in time, i.e., an initial sharp fall followed by a more gradual decline. Considerable variations observed in the measured P-wave velocity reductions across the sandstone core could largely be attributed to the final state of saturation (e.g. uniform, patchy or in-between) attained by the two-phase fluids. Numerical simulation of the injection test using a simple 1D model was carried out to provide an estimation of the phase saturation changes underlying the measured P-wave velocity reductions. A second order polynomial correlation between the measured ultrasonic P-wave velocity reductions and the estimated CO2 saturation was established. Comparison with the Gassmann velocities showed that the empirically established relationship marks a clear deviation from both the patchy and uniform saturation velocity curves.