Geologic storage of CO2 from refining and chemical facilities in the midwestern US

Three locations in the midwestern US were evaluated for saline reservoir sequestration of CO2 transported from refineries and chemical plants along existing pipeline rights-of-way. Based on formation volume calculations, the potential storage capacity in a single formation (the Mt. Simon Sandstone) is in the range of several billion tons. Compositional reservoir simulations using single-well radial models were completed to predict the formation pressures, CO2 spreading, and dissolution following injection. Injectivity at all sites appears to be sufficient for more than 1 Mt/year/well of CO2 without exceeding the fracture pressure limits, and no leakage of CO2 into shallower horizons was predicted. A horizontal injection well scenario showed a smaller increase in reservoir pressure than vertical wells. The geochemical evaluation included a summary of the brine chemistry and mineralogy of the reservoir and caprock formations. Equilibrium geochemical simulations for several scenarios did not indicate any adverse reactions as a result of CO2 injection. A preliminary economic and engineering assessment of several injection scenarios showed that the cost of CO2 dehydration, compression, transport, and injection is nearly $ 20/t, excluding capture costs. The largest capital cost is compression and pipeline systems, and the largest operational cost is compression. System costs may be reduced by optimizing the location of storage reservoirs closer to the emission sources or through development of a regional shared transport network and storage site.