Dispersion of carbon dioxide from vertical vent and horizontal releases-A numerical study

Numerical simulations of far-field carbon dioxide dispersion were conducted for a vertical vent release and a horizontal release from a shock tube. These scenarios had also been studied experimentally at field scale commissioned by National Grid. This work and the experiments both form part of the National Grid dense phase CO2 pipeLine TRANSportation (COOLTRANS) research programme. All tests involved releases of dense phase CO2 into an atmospheric flow. The dispersing plumes were subjected to transient wind conditions where both the direction and magnitude of the wind fluctuated with time. As part of the COOLTRANS research programme, the far-field dispersion simulations started from source terms derived from the near-field simulations conducted by the University of Leeds and outflow simulations conducted by University College London. The numerical model used for the far-field simulations is based on OPENFOAM, which is an object-oriented open source computational fluid dynamics toolbox. A dedicated solver CO(2)FOAM has been developed within the framework of OPENFOAM for simulating dispersion from dense phase CO2 releases. This has included the implementation of the homogeneous equilibrium method for fully compressible two-phase flow, treatment of the transient atmospheric boundary conditions and the time-varying inlet boundary conditions. The experimental measurements were supplied to the authors after the predictions were completed and submitted to National Grid. Hence, the validation reported here is indeed “blind.” While further fine tuning of the model and validation is still underway, the relatively good agreement between the predictions and measurements in the present study has demonstrated the potential of CO(2)FOAM as an effective predictive tool for far-field CO2 dispersion in the context of pipeline transportation for carbon capture and storage.