Carbon capture and storage (CCS) covers a broad range of technologies that are being developed to allow carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel use at large point sources to be transported to safe geological storage, rather than being emitted to the atmosphere. Some key enabling contributions from technology development that could help to facilitate the widespread commercial deployment of CCS are expected to include cost reductions for CO2 capture technology and improved techniques for monitoring stored CO2. It is important, however, to realise that CCS will always require additional energy compared to projects without CCS, so will not be used unless project operators see an appropriate value for reducing CO2 emissions from their operations or legislation is introduced that requires CCS to be used. Possible key advances for CO2 capture technology over the next 50 years, which are expected to arise from an eventual adoption of CCS as standard practice for all large stationary fossil fuel installations, are also identified. These include continued incremental improvements (e.g. many potential solvent developments) as well as possible step-changes, such as ion transfer membranes for oxygen production for integrated gasifier combined cycle and oxyfuel plants.