Technical Parallel Sessions
CO2-EOR: financial game-changer for North Sea CCS or elusive chimera?
Chair Andy Chadwick, BGS
A UK Pathway to Rapid and Profitable CCS Rollout, Stuart Haszeldine, University of Edinburgh
There are several methods of Enhanced Oil Recovery, but using CO2 as a solvent for EOR is the only process which offsets greenhouse gases. A reliable UK CO2 supply will soon be available when CCS develops and SCCS examined diverse blockages to profitable CO2-EOR. These results are summarised in the recent SCCS EOR report where it discussed the carbon balance; geological suitability; 7x economic leverage; tax; oil price; social acceptance. Fracked shale and underground coal gasification domestic hydrocarbon production could provide more CO2 and the rollout of commercial CO2-EOR could enable 10x more CO2 to be stored by 2050 than state-led pathways.
CO2-EOR in the UK: Analysis of Fiscal Incentives, Emrah Durusut, Element Energy
The SCCS CO2-EOR Joint Industry Project commissioned Element Energy to quantify the potential impacts of fiscal incentives for CO2-EOR in the UK Continental Shelf in detail, recognising the additional costs, complexities, uncertainties and longer-term liabilities faced by CCS projects involving CO2-EOR. The analysis was carried out in 2013 using financial modelling of investor behaviour under a wide range of drivers, scenarios, sensitivities. The approach drew on published data and the team’s data and models for oil and gas taxation, and the understanding of CCS and CO2-EOR.
Offshore CO2-EOR: The Realists View, Steve Furnival, HoBoil Ltd
CO2-EOR has recovered over 2 billion barrels of oil from onshore oil fields in the Permain Basin of West Texas. Nowhere in the world has CO2-EOR been implemented in an offshore environment. Why? Clearly the current oil price does not help but even if we were back at $100/barrel or more it is considered highly unlikely that CO2EOR would work for technical reasons mostly relating to the interplay of supercritical CO2 properties and the geological parameters favoured in the offshore.
Carbon capture and storage for natural gas power stations
Chair Mathieu Lucquiaud, University of Edinburgh
Gas-FACTS: Gas - Future Advanced Capture Technology Options, Karen Finney, University of Sheffield
The Gas-FACTS project is a consortium of five leading UK universities, providing important underpinning research for carbon capture development and deployment on combined cycle gas turbine power plants in the UK. The three main integrated, research-based work packages focus on: gas turbine modifications for improved CCS systems performance; advanced solvent-based, post-combustion capture technologies for future gas power systems; and whole systems performance assessments. These are the principal candidates for deployment in a possible tens-of-£billions expansion of the CCS sector between 2020 and 2030. In the presentation, the key findings of this research programme will be overviewed, linking the gas turbine options of humidification, exhaust gas recycling and CO2 transfer/recycle (WP1), with the investigations into gas-specific solvents and flexible capture systems (WP2). These experimental phases of the project, primarily conducted at PACT facilities, have fed into the extensive modelling and process simulations concerning system integration and assessments (WP3); in particular looking at future operating requirements, RAMO and the trade-offs between solvent-turbine configurations under realistic constraints, as well as financial, social and environmental sustainability factors. The continuing interaction and involvement with our considerable industrial expert advisory panel has greatly facilitated the impact delivery aspects of the project (WP4).
Adsorption Materials and Processes for Carbon Capture from Gas-Fired Power Plants - AMPGas, Enzo Mangano, University of Edinburgh
We present the progress on the “Adsorption Materials and Processes for Carbon Capture from Gas-Fired Power Plants” project, an EPSRC funded research consortium led by the University of Edinburgh with the collaboration of the University of St. Andrews and Heriot-Watt University. The aims of the project are to apply a range of experimental techniques to determine equilibrium and kinetic properties of nanoporous materials purposely developed for carbon capture from diluted streams; develop an integrated adsorption process based on rapid thermal swings and demonstrate the process using a bench scale rotary wheel adsorber (RWA). Different adsorbents tailored for CO2 separation from dilute streams are being developed, i.e. Zeolites and amine-containing MOFs, amine-based Silicas, activated carbons and carbon nanotubes. The ranking of all the materials is carried out using different techniques ranging from the Zero Length Column, to breakthrough, volumetric and gravimetric experiments, to assess the CO2 capacity, the equilibrium and kinetics of the adsorbents. An innovative bench scale RWA has been designed and is being built at the University of Edinburgh to capture CO2 from dilute streams using rapid thermal swing adsorption cycles. The system will demonstrate the proposed capture process and produce experimental results to validate the detailed adsorption model.
Effective Adsorbents for Establishing Solids Looping as a Next Generation NG PCC Technology, Hao Liu, University of Nottingham
The flue gas characteristics of natural fired gas power plants, mostly operating in a combined cycle of gas turbine and steam turbine (NGCC), differ significantly from those from coal-fired power plants. Comparing to the flue gas of the same size coal-fired power plant, the flue gas of a NGCC power plant contains significantly lower CO2 and higher O2 concentrations and has ca. 50% higher flow rate, which make the separation of CO2 equally, if not more, challenging. A new generation of PCC technologies for NGCC power plants which overcome drawbacks of amine scrubbing need to developed and demonstrated in the next 10 ~ 20 years in order for their commercialisation from ca. 2030. Solid adsorbents looping technology (SALT) is widely recognised as having the potential to be a viable next generation PCC technology for CO2 capture compared to the state-of-art amine scrubbing, offering potentially significantly improved process efficiency at much reduced energy penalty, lower capital and operational costs and smaller plant footprints.The aim of this project is to overcome the performance barriers for implementing the two types of candidate adsorbent systems developed at Nottingham, namely the supported/immobilised polyamines and potassium-promoted co-precipitated sorbent system, in the solid looping technology specifically for NGCC power plants, which effectively integrates both materials and process development and related fundamental issues underpinning the technology development.
Computational Modelling and Optimisation of Carbon Capture Reactors, Daniel Sebastiá Sáez, Cranfield University
The scope of the present work is the development of a CFD model to describe the multiphase flow inside a structured packing absorber for post-combustion CCS. CFD models found in the literature are divided in three scales due to the current computational capacity: micro-, meso- and macro-scale. This work focuses on the three scales. Micro-scale has usually dealt with small 2D computational domains. Meso-scale has commonly been considered to assess the dry pressure performance of the packing and macro-scale studies the liquid distribution over the whole column assuming that the structured packing behaves as a porous medium.
The novelty of this work lies in expanding the possibilities of the afore-mentioned scales:
• At micro-scale, the interfacial tracking is implemented in a 3D domain. The UDF that describes the reactive mass transfer of the CO2-MEA system is added in order to account for the influence of the liquid maldistribution in the mass transfer performance.
• At meso-scale, the VOF method is included to describe flow characteristics such as the liquid hold-up, the interfacial area and the non-reactive mass transfer.
• At macro-scale, liquid distribution within the porous medium along with chemical absorption is studied.
Chair Jon Gibbins, UKCCSRC
Carbon Capture and Storage in Australia - Tania Constable, CO2CRC
Australia is currently the world’s third largest exporter of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). With an additional 62 million tonnes capacity to come on stream soon, it will become the largest exporter. Australia exports 27% of the world’s coal and is currently the world’s second largest coal exporter. It also exports 650 million tonnes iron core and pellets, and is currently the second largest iron exporter. Australia's economy benefits significantly from fossil fuels' exports, earning $68 billion in 2014. Australia must progress Carbon Capture and Storage research development and deployment to ensure long-term and cost competitive deployment to meet long-term climate goals, whilst sustaining its export market in domestic energy security. That said, the business case in Australia is difficult. CCS must be socially acceptable, meet regulation and community concerns, must be cost competitive and technology neutral. Real projects will make an enormous difference to public and community perceptions. In this way, CO2CRC’s Otway project and Chevron’s Gorgon LNG project in Western Australia are important to the deployment of CCS in Australia.
Research Coordination Network on Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage Funded by National Science Foundation in USA - A.-H. Alissa Park, Columbia University
Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) is one of the largest challenges faced by scientists and engineers due to its scale and complexity. A group of researchers have come together to discuss and address the important questions related to CCUS to bring much needed synergy into the field. This effort is funded by the National Science Foundation in the United States and the members include over 100 scientists and engineers from 10 different countries. Our mission is to build a trans-disciplinary Research Coordination Network (RCN) on CCUS that will facilitate research collaborations and training that cross the boundaries of the natural sciences, engineering, and the social and economic sciences to develop new understanding, theories, models and technologies as well as assessment tools for the developed technologies and their implementation plans for global communities. In this presentation, the Director of the RCN-CCUS, A.-H. Alissa Park, will give the updates on the RCN-CCUS activities and highlight important accomplishments.
Changes in the Dutch CCS Landscape - Jan Brouwer, CATO
The presentation will address the Dutch CCS Landscape from a number of perspectives.
- Political: the minister of Economic Affairs is expected to present the Dutch Energy Policy 4th Q 2015 and has drafted a CCS vision for the next decades. This vision includes continuing support to CCS R&D and a distinct government involvement in a long-term transport and storage strategy.
- Industrial: the Rotterdam CCS demo (ROAD) is assumed to be close to a positive FID, now that the business case has improved by considering alternative funding and cost reduction options.
- R&D: whereas the new Dutch CCS policy includes continuing R&D support, funds will become available only to CCS projects that implement international cooperation. This will significantly change the research landscape in the Netherlands.
- Societal: strong opposition with respect to the production of natural gas has resulted from an increase in production related earthquakes in the Northern part of the Netherlands. This opposition affects the public support for the use of fossil fuels in general and hence CCS. It furthermore adds to the strong distrust of all sub-surface related activities (such as CO2 storage).
The Norwegian Instruments for CCS Development - Åse Slagtern, The Research Council of Norway
Norway has an ambitious CCS strategy that ranges from high level R&D to plans for building a CCS demonstration plant by 2020. The CCS strategy is part of the Norwegian target of reducing CO2 emission by 40% by 2030. The R&D activities range from basic research to pilot and demonstration activities. New innovative solutions for CO2 capture is prioritized together with research that can lead to large scale CO2 storage in the North Sea. International collaboration between research communities as well as knowledge sharing across borders is also essential in the CCS strategy.
Capability Construction of Shanghai CCS Research Centre - Dehao Ju, Shanghai Jiao Tong University
The presentation will cover these main points; progress and deployment of CCS demonstration projects in China, CCS activities in Shanghai and SJTU and the Shanghai CCS research centres plan.
Guangdong Offshore CCUS Project (GOCCUS) - Xi Liang, University of Edinburgh
GDCCUSC is an open platform to support industrial development, academic cooperation and process design in CCUS, and other near zero emission technologies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and other pollution. GDCCUSC is the legal entity of the UK-China (Guangdong) CCUS Centre, which was initiated by Guangdong Electric Power Design Institute (GEDI), UK CCS Research Centre and Scottish CCS, (both based at the University of Edinburgh). GDCCUSC is leading the development of a one million ton scale Guangdong Offshore Carbon, Capture, Utilization and Storage Project (GOCCUS), which includes capturing CO2 from a conventional power plant with post-combustion capture and the first major offshore CCUS demonstration project in China.