Developing and deploying CCS also brings many challenges beyond the narrowly technical. Understanding the innovation processes for CCS requires inter-disciplinary studies drawing on natural science and engineering, as well as social science, economics, law, etc. Understanding socio-technical innovation processes can shed light on many relevant practical problems for policy makers, companies and other interested parties.
For example, we can learn from historical examples about the speed with which technologies can be scaled up and deployed, and how that was determined not only by factors internal to the technologies themselves, but also by how the relevant expertise is transferred between sectors and countries and distributed across organisations, how information was disseminated, how policy was designed, and governance regimes and other factors.
Of interest is also how to manage the establishment of the new knowledge needed, about the performance and impacts of CCS technologies. This can be a complicated process, especially when a technology becomes politicised, which is already happening to CCS. For the societal acceptance and support for CCS, it is also crucial to understand how the general public, local communities, NGOs and other groups perceive the technology.