Capture

Research Area Champions: Stefano Brandani, Paul Fennell, Jon Gibbins, John OakeyMohamed PourkashanianStuart Scott and Colin Snape.

CO2 accounts for a significant amount of the gases emitted from fossil fuel conversion for power generation, for example, making up 3-15% of the gas (known as flue gas) that results from fossil fuel combustion for power generation. CO2 must be separated, or captured, from the flue gas before it can be geologically stored. There are three main methods for capturing CO2 from fossil fuel combustion. Post-combustion captures CO2 directly from flue gases exiting standard combustion processes, typically with the use of solvents, sorbents, membranes or cryogenics, pre-combustion capture produces a synthetic gas from fossil fuels which have been stripped of carbon prior to combustion, leaving hydrogen to burn, and oxyfuel combustion burns coal or gas in pure oxygen to yield only CO2 and water. The captured CO2 must be as pure as possible- the presence of impurities, such as nitrogen and sulphur oxides, in the captured COcan increase the costs of transportation and compression and can lead to more uncertain behaviour in the geological storage reservoir. 


 

Post-combustion Capture

In post-combustion capture, fuel is burned as usual in a (more-or-less) unmodified power plant. Currently the commercialised technology for post combustion capture is chemical absorption. It is the most advanced method due to considerable industrial experience with similar processes. CO...

Pre-combustion Capture

Pre-combustion capture, typically operated with Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC), involves gasification and partial oxidisation of the fuel to produce CO 2 and hydrogen which are then separated, commonly using physical absorption processes. The hydrogen is then combusted in a...

Oxyfuel Combustion

Oxyfuel combustion separates oxygen from air using established cryogenic methods and then burns the coal or gas fuel in a mixture of that oxygen, often combined with recycled flue gas to regulate the temperature of combustion. Advantages of oxyfuel are...